I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again: teaching electric circuits is hard.
Providing your students with a conceptual model can, in my opinion, be immensely helpful. In recent years, I have used what I call the Coulomb Train Model (CTM). It is essentially a variation on the “stiff chain”-class analogies that some researchers have argued as being particularly useful in developing students’ understanding.
One reason why I like the CTM is that it provides a physical picture to aid students’ comprehension of many of the electrical equations needed at GCSE.
Of course, any analogy or model will have its flaws, but on the whole I think the CTM has fewer than many of its rivals!
Essentially, the CTM pictures an electric circuit as a continuously moving chain of postively-charged “trucks” called coulombs that carry energy from the cell to (say) the bulb. In the diagram below, they should be pictured as moving clockwise.
Charge flow = current x time
Charge flow = number of coulombs that pass a given point in time.
Current = number of coulombs that pass by in one second (i.e. current = charge flow / time).
In other words, an ammeter counts the coulombs passing by in one second. The ammeter only “sees” the coulombs and does not register how much (or how little) energy each one contains. Therefore current I1 and current I2 are equal.
The ammeters are shown as being semi-transparent in order to provide a visual cue that they are low resistance devices.
Energy transferred = charge flow x potential difference
On the CTM, potential difference can be pictured as energy being added to, or removed from, each coulomb.
For example, if one joule is removed from each coulomb as they pass through the bulb, the potential difference across the bulb is one volt. If one joule is added to each coulomb as they pass through the cell, then the potential difference (or e.m.f.) across the cell is one volt.
The total energy transferred from (say) ten coulombs passing through the bulb would be charge flow (10 coulombs) x potential difference (1 volt) = 10 joules.
The white gloves on the voltmeter are intended to be reminiscent of the white gloves of a snooker referee.
The intention is to disrupt the flow of the coulombs as little as possible and so this is a visual reminder that a voltmeter is a high resistance instrument.
To emphasise the fact that potential difference is an “energy difference”, challenge students to predict the reading on this voltmeter.
The potential difference V3 is, of course, zero since there is no transfer of energy to or from the coulombs.
Current in Series and Parallel Circuits
I think the CTM can be really effective in allowing students to a see a comprehensible physical analogue of the circuits.
For example, I3 = I4 = I5 = 0.5 amps; I6 = I11 = 2 amps; and I7 = I8 = I9 = I10 = 1 amp.
Potential difference in series and parallel circuit
Equally, I think the CTM can give a comprehensible physical picture of the situation.
In this case (assuming the the cell has a p.d. of 1 V and the bulbs are identical), V4 = V5 = 0.5 V.
In the parallel circuit, each bulb tranfers one joule of energy from each bulb, and so the potential difference across each bulb is one volt.